close

Navigation Map

Download our best practices
Interactive navigation is a tool that goes beyond the standard navigation of the integrated content (available in the report drop-down bar). New approach allowed to navigate in the two additional business dimensions of the PZU Group, i.e .:
  • strategy (insurance, health, investments, finances);
  • sustainable development (sales, employees, social responsibility, natural environment and ethics).
The above-mentioned areas were additionally supplemented with related GRI indicators, within each selected issue.
Employees
Society
Ethics
Environment
Products
Overview
Health
Banking
Investments
Insurance
Business
practices

In the Chapter

GRIs

35.1. Accounting policy

Annual Report 2019 > 35.1. Accounting policy
Facebook Twitter All
Integrated Navigation
Insurance
Health
Investments
Banking
Best Pratices in PZU
Page tools:

35.1.1.  Recognition and classification

Financial assets are recognized in the statement of financial position at the moment when a PZU Group company becomes a party to a binding contract, under which it assumes risk and becomes a beneficiary of the benefits associated with the financial instrument. In the case of transactions concluded on an organized market, the purchase or sale of financial assets are recognized in the books on the date of the transaction.

The instrument is classified at the time of recognition of the instrument for the first time. The classification may only be changed in rare cases when the business model changes. The classification of financial assets depends on:

  • the entity’s business model for managing financial assets and
  • the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

According to IFRS 9 financial assets are classified for valuation at:

  • amortized cost;
  • fair value through profit or loss;
  • fair value through other comprehensive income.

Business models

Financial assets are managed in accordance with business models applied to enable the provision of information for management purposes. When analyzing business models, the PZU Group takes the following into account:

  • how the performance of the business model and the financial assets held within that business model are evaluated and reported to the entity's key management personnel;
  • the risks that affect the performance of the business model (and the financial assets held within that business model) and, in particular, the way in which those risks are managed.

Description of business models Assets held in order to collect contractual cash flows Assets held in order to collect contractual cash flows and cash flows from selling assets Other financial assets
Risks under management Long-term interest rate risk, credit risk Long-term interest rate risk, credit risk, long-term liquidity Short-term interest rate risk, currency risk, risk of changing prices of equities, indices, commodities and short-term liquidity management.
Terms and conditions of the sale of assets in the model
  • transactions are rare 
  • the value of assets sold compared to the total value of assets in the model is insignificant 
  • the maturity of assets sold is close, while revenues are approximating the values of contractual cash flows remaining to be received if the assets was kept in the portfolio till initial maturity 
  • deterioration of credit quality
The permitted level of sales is higher than in the model of assets held to collect contractual cash flows, but much lower than for assets held for trading. No restrictions on sales
 

Financial assets held for trading and those that are held in a model managed at fair value have been classified as measured at fair value through profit or loss.

SPPI test

A special test is performed to evaluate whether contractual cash flows consist of solely payments of principal and interest (so called the SPPI test). The principal amount is defined as the fair value of the financial asset at initial recognition. Interest consists of consideration for the time value of money, for the credit risk associated with the principal amount outstanding during a particular period of time and for other basic lending risks and costs, as well as a profit margin.

The SPPI test examines whether a financial asset contains contractual terms that could change the timing or amounts of contractual cash flows so that the condition of obtaining solely payments of principal and interest would not be met. In making its evaluation, the PZU Group takes the following into account:

  • conditional events that could change the amounts and timing of cash flows;
  • factors modifying the interest rate;
  • terms of prepayment and extension;
  • terms limiting the right to obtain cash flows;
  • factors that modify the time value of money, including periodic resets of the interest rate.

The SPPI test is carried out for financial assets classified into a business model whose objective is achieved by collecting contractual cash flows or a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling.

The SPPI test is carried out:

  • collectively – for homogeneous groups of standard products;
  • on the single contract level – for non-standard products;
  • on the ISIN code level – for debt securities.

If a financial asset contains terms causing modification of the value of money over time, the so-called verification benchmark test is carried out to determine the difference between undiscounted cash flows following from the contract and the undiscounted cash flows which would occur if the value of money over time was not modified (cash flow benchmark level). If the difference is material then the instrument does not pass the SPPI test and is measured at fair value through profit or loss.

35.1.2.  Measurement principles

Financial assets measured at amortized cost

A financial asset is classified as financial asset measured at amortized cost if both of the following conditions are met:

  • the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by holding financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows,
  • it passes the SPPI test – the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial assets measured at amortized cost include, among others:

  • payment made for debt securities purchased under a contract which shows that the seller has retained substantially all risks and benefits associated with such securities (buy-sell-back and reverse repo transactions);
  • debt securities;
  • term deposits with credit institutions;
  • loans granted.

Upon first recognition, financial assets measured at amortized cost are recognized at fair value plus transaction costs which can be allocated directly to the purchase of issue of such assets.

The results of the measurement at amortized cost are recognized in the profit and loss account in the “Net investment income” item.

Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if both of the following conditions are met:

  • the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets;
  • it passes the SPPI test – the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Interest on debt instruments accrued using the effective interest rate are recognized in the profit and loss account in the “Net investment income” item.

Fair value measurement principles are described in section 9.1. The effects of changes in the fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income until exclusion of the asset from the statement of financial position, when the cumulative effects of the measurement are moved to the profit and loss account, to the “Net result on realization of financial instruments and investments” item.

The allowances for expected credit losses is recognized in other comprehensive income and on the other side in the profit and loss account in the “Movement in allowances for expected credit losses and impairment losses on financial instruments” item. The value of the recognized allowance does not reduce the carrying amount of the asset.

This category of financial assets also includes equity instruments, for which an irrevocable designation has been made to be measured at fair value, with subsequent changes in fair value recognized in other comprehensive income. The decision on such classification is made individually for each instrument. If such assets are sold, the result on sales is transferred to supplementary capital.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

This category includes other financial instruments that do not meet the conditions for being classified as financial assets measured at amortized cost or fair value through other comprehensive income. This pertains in particular to:

  • financial assets designated for measurement at fair value through profit or loss;
  • participation units that are not equity instruments and to which the SPPI condition does not apply, which solely payment of principal and interest;
  • financial assets that have not passed the SPPI test – for which contractual terms result in cash flows not being solely payments of principal and interest;
  • financial assets held within a business model other than the one whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows or both to collect contractual cash flows and to sell financial assets;
  • equity instruments that were not irrevocably designated as at fair value through other comprehensive income;

Fair value measurement principles are described in section 9.1. The effects of change of the measurement of financial instruments carried at fair value, including the interest income related to them and changes in the value of liabilities on account of investment contracts for the client’s account and risk are recognized in the “Net movement in fair value of assets and liabilities measured at fair value” item in the period to which they pertain.

35.1.3.  Exclusion from the statement of financial position

Financial assets are excluded from the consolidated statement of financial position when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire or are transferred to another entity. The transfer also takes place when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset are retained but the contractual obligation to transfer such cash flow to an entity outside the PZU Group is assumed.

When transferring financial assets, the entity assesses to that extent the risk and benefits associated with the holding of the asset is retained:

  • if substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the asset are transferred, the financial asset is excluded from the consolidated statement of financial position;
  • if substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the financial asset are retained, the financial asset continues to be recognized in the consolidated statement of financial position;
  • if substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the financial asset are not transferred and not retained, it is determined whether control over the financial asset is retained.

If control is retained the financial asset is recognized in the consolidated statement of financial position up to the value following from the permanent exposure and if there is no control the asset is excluded from the consolidated statement of financial position.