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47.1 Accounting policy

Annual Report 2019 > 47.1 Accounting policy
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PZU Group companies are parties to lease agreements, both as lessors and as lessees.

47.1.1. Principles prevailing as of 1 January 2019

An agreement is a lease or comprises a lease if it transfers the right to control the use of an identified asset for a specific period in return for a fee.

47.1.1.1. PZU Group as the lessee

On the date when the leased asset is available for use, the PZU Group recognizes the right-of-use asset and the lease liability. Pursuant to item 4 of IFRS 16, the PZU Group does not apply this standard to intangible assets.
The lease period is an irrevocable period of use of an asset, determined taking into consideration:

  • the options of extending or shortening, if they are in principle certain;
  • material investments in the leased item undertaken during the term of the agreement which are expected to bring significant economic benefits for the PZU Group company, on the basis of which decisions will be taken on extending or terminating the agreement;
  • the costs associated with termination of the lease, such as costs of negotiation, costs of relocation, costs of search for different premises/property adequate to the company’s business needs, termination penalty and costs associated with adaptation of the condition of the subject matter of the agreement being returned;
  • the significance of the asset for the activity of the PZU Group company, considering the specialization of the asset, its location and availability of relevant alternative solutions;
  • conditions associated with exercising the option (i.e. if the option can be exercised when one or more conditions have been satisfied) and the probability of fulfillment of such conditions.

Assessing the probability of exercise of the aforementioned options, the company takes into account all material facts and circumstances which constitute an economic incentive to exercise the option to extend the lease and or not to exercise the option to terminate the lease.
The PZU Group determines the lease period for agreements for an indefinite term taking into account the economic factors, the existing practice and the available information which may be helpful in determining the period of use of the asset. To determine the lease period, the PZU Group uses professional judgment. In particular, for the perpetual usufruct right to land, the lease period is determined as the time remaining from the date of implementation of IFRS 16 or from the date of purchase of the perpetual usufruct right to land (of acquired after 1 January 2019) until the date of expiry of such right.
On initial recognition:

  • the lease liability is measured at the present value of the outstanding lease payments, including fixed lease payments less any applicable lease incentives, variable lease payments that depend on an index or rate, the amounts that the lessee expects to pay within the guaranteed residual value, the exercise price of the call option, if likely to be exercised, and penalties for terminating the lease if the option is available;
  • right-of-use assets are measured at cost, which includes the initial lease liability amount, any lease payments paid on or before the commencement date, less any lease incentives received, all initial costs incurred by the lessee, and an estimate of the costs to be incurred in disassembling and removing the asset, renovating the site where it was located, if the lease contract so requires.

The PZU Group recognizes assets and liabilities in respect of lease at a net amount. The VAT amount is recognized in expenses of the current period.
Lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if it can be easily determined, or the lessee’s marginal interest rate.
The lessee’s marginal rate is calculated as the sum of the risk-free rate and fixed risk spread. For all contracts ending on the same date and with a fixed amount of monthly payments (this group includes most lease contracts in the PZU Group) a fixed contract discount rate has been calculated.
In subsequent periods:

  • the right-of-use asset is measured using the cost less depreciation and impairment model or at fair value (in the case of assets being investment properties);
  • the liability is measured at amortized cost.

Right-of-use assets are depreciated using the straight-line method from the lease commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life or the end of the lease period.

Right-of-use assets are recognized jointly with property, plant and equipment or investment property, respectively, while lease liabilities as financial liabilities.
Changes in lease payments (resulting from, among others, changes in the index, rate, lease period) are taken into account, updating the valuation of lease liabilities and an appropriate adjustment of the right-of-use assets. The lease period is updated in the case of:

  • occurrence of a significant event or significant change in the circumstances which the PZU Group controls and as a result of which it is possible to assume with sufficient certainty that the PZU Group will exercise an option which has not been previously taken into consideration in the determination regarding the lease period, or that it will not exercise an option which has been previously taken into consideration in such determinations;
  •  change of the irrevocable period of lease or new determination of the lease period in the case of amendment of the agreement, if such change has not been recognized as a separate lease.

Short-term lease and low-value asset lease


The PZU Group does not recognize right-of-use assets for short-term leases and for leases for which the underlying asset has a low value. Low-value assets were deemed to be assets with an original value of the underlying asset equal to or lower than PLN 20 thousand. In such a case the PZU Group recognizes lease payments as a cost in the consolidated profit and loss account during the lease period.

47.1.1.2. PZU Group as the lessor

On the date of commencement of the lease, the PZU Group classifies the given lease agreement as:
  • finance lease – if substantially all of the risks and benefits following from the holding of the underlying asset are transferred or as operating lease – if the above conditions are not satisfied.
  • Classifying the given lease agreement, the PZU Group takes into account, among others, the fact whether the lease period constitutes a larger part of the economic useful life of the asset.

Finance lease


On the lease commencement date, the PZU Group recognizes the receivable in the amount of the net lease investment, i.e. the current value of minimum lease payments and unguaranteed residual value, if any, ascribed to the PZU Group. During the lease period the PZU Group recognizes interest income on the lease receivables.

Operating leases


Operating lease agreements pertain primarily to real property.
Lease payments under operating leases are recognized in the profit and loss account as income using the straight line method throughout the term of the lease.

47.1.2. Principles prevailing until 31 December 2018

The classification of leases was based on the extent to which the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item lie with the lessor or the lessee.

47.1.2.1. Finance leases

In the case of lease agreements under which substantially all risks and rewards incidental to ownership of a leased asset were transferred, it stopped being recognized in the lessor’s balance sheet. Instead the lessor recognized a receivable in an amount equal to the present value of minimum lease payments, which were then divided between interest income and decrease in the balance of receivables.

47.1.2.2. Operating leases

Operating lease agreements concerned predominantly real properties.

Lease payments under operating leases were recognized in the profit and loss account as income using the straight line method throughout the term of the lease.